Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic digestive disease. GERD occurs when stomach acid or, occasionally, stomach content, flows back into your food pipe (esophagus). The backwash (reflux) irritates the lining of your esophagus and causes GERD.
Both acid reflux and heartburn are common digestive conditions that many people experience from time to time. When these signs and symptoms occur at least twice each week or interfere with your daily life, or when your doctor can see damage to your esophagus, you may be diagnosed with GERD.
Most people can manage the discomfort of GERD with lifestyle changes and over-the-counter medications. But some people with GERD may need stronger medications, or even surgery, to reduce symptoms.
GERD signs and symptoms include:
- A burning sensation in your chest (heartburn), sometimes spreading to your throat, along with a sour taste in your mouth
- Chest pain
- Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia)
- Dry cough
- Hoarseness or sore throat
- Regurgitation of food or sour liquid (acid reflux)
- Sensation of a lump in your throat
- GERD is caused by frequent acid reflux — the backup of stomach acid or bile into the esophagus.
- When you swallow, the lower esophageal sphincter — a circular band of muscle around the bottom part of your esophagus — relaxes to allow food and liquid to flow down into your stomach. Then it closes again.
- However, if this valve relaxes abnormally or weakens, stomach acid can flow back up into your esophagus, causing frequent heartburn. Sometimes this can disrupt your daily life.
- This constant backwash of acid can irritate the lining of your esophagus, causing it to become inflamed (esophagitis). Over time, the inflammation can wear away the esophageal lining, causing complications such as bleeding, esophageal narrowing or Barrett’s esophagus (a precancerous condition)
Conditions that can increase your risk of GERD include:
- Bulging of top of stomach up into the diaphragm (hiatal hernia)
- Dry mouth
- Delayed stomach emptying
- Connective tissue disorders, such as scleroderma
Over time, chronic inflammation in your esophagus can lead to complications, including:
- Narrowing of the esophagus (esophageal stricture). Damage to cells in the lower esophagus from acid exposure leads to formation of scar tissue. The scar tissue narrows the food pathway, causing difficulty swallowing.
- An open sore in the esophagus (esophageal ulcer).Stomach acid can severely erode tissues in the esophagus, causing an open sore to form. The esophageal ulcer may bleed, cause pain and make swallowing difficult.
- Precancerous changes to the esophagus (Barrett’s esophagus). In Barrett’s esophagus, the tissue lining the lower esophagus changes. These changes are associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer. The risk of cancer is low, but your doctor will likely recommend regular endoscopy exams to look for early warning signs of esophageal cancer.
The lower esophageal muscle can be weakened by factors other than food. The following recommendations may be helpful in reducing symptoms:
- Stop using tobacco in all forms. Nicotine weakens the lower esophageal muscle.
- Avoid chewing gum and hard candy. They increase the amount of swallowed air which, in turn, leads to belching and reflux.
- Do not lie down immediately after eating. Avoid late evening snacks.
- Avoid tight clothing and bending over after eating.
- Eat small, frequent portions of food and snack if needed.
- Lose weight if overweight. Obesity leads to increased reflux.
- Do not eat 2-3 hours before bedtime
- Elevate the head of the bed six to eight inches to prevent reflux when sleeping. Extra pillows, by themselves, are not very helpful.
- The following foods aggravate acid reflux, and should be avoided:
- fatty or fried foods
- peppermint and spearmint
- whole milk
- creamed foods or soups
- most fast foods
- Cold cuts, sausage, bacon, hot dogs and other processed meats
- The following foods irritate an inflamed lower esophagus and may need to be limited or avoided:
- citrus fruits and juices (grapefruit, orange, pineapple, tomato)
- coffee (regular and decaffeinated)
- caffeinated soft drinks
- other caffeinated beverages
- Spicy or acidic foods may not be tolerated by some individuals.
GERD is a chronic condition that is treatable with natural and holistic options. Contact us today and schedule an evaluation. 818-788-8242